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World's Largest Single-Piece Rocket Engine 3D Printed on Laser Melting Machine

Orbex has introduced the world's largest metal rocket engine 3D printed in a single piece on the SLM® 800.

Founded in 2015, the UK-based spaceflight company develops small satellite launch vehicles and introduced Prime, their revolutionary and environmentally-friendly rocket at the grand opening of their new headquarters in Forres, Scotland.

The novel Orbex launcher not only uses 100 percent renewable fuel to cut carbon emissions by 90 percent and a novel zero-shock staging and payload separation resulting in zero orbital debris, but was also design-optimized for selective laser melting, helping to create a structure 30 percent lighter and 20 percent more efficient than any other launch vehicle in its category.

Orbex aerospace engineers partnered closely with the applications engineering team at SLM Solutions headquarters in Lübeck, Germany to ensure success transferring the design into selective laser melting production -- a feat that required the partnership of the equipment provider due to the complexity and size of the component.

Lukas Pankiewicz, Applications Specialist, headed the consulting team inside SLM Solutions to develop a unique set of parameters optimized for this particular geometry. Working closely with the design team at Orbex, Pankiewicz consulted on the various design features and orientation options, while ensuring the part built successfully with the required material properties and dimensional accuracy.

"Our aim during the process was to fulfill the quality expectations of the Orbex team, keep the functionality of the part and make it suitable for additive manufacturing. Every single support structure used in data preparation has been customized to obtain the best quality in every section of the engine, taking post-processing into consideration as well."

The SLM® 800 large-format metal additive manufacturing system features a 260x500mm powder bed that can build parts 800mm tall, allowing the Prime engine to be built in a special nickel alloy in a single piece.

The SLM® HUB unpacking system for the SLM®800 integrates contactless powder handling and automated build chamber conveyors to transfer the finished part to an unpacking station designed to remove powder through vibration and rotation. Pankiewicz ensured a powder removal strategy was incorporated into the build with purpose driven delivery channels to be certain as much powder was removed from the build as possible while reducing material loss.

After production, reference samples built together with the engine were analyzed in the SLM Solutions' metallography lab, where porosity level and distribution were proven to meet the quality acceptance criteria. The rapid iteration times inherent to the SLM process allowed Orbex to realize both time and cost reductions -- saving 90 percent in turnaround time and over 50 percent in costs compared to traditional CNC machining production.

"This has always been what SLM Solutions is about," said Dr. Axel Schulz, Chief Sales Officer of SLM Solutions. "Members of our team helped invent the selective laser melting technology! We've always wanted that technology to succeed -- which isn't just about selling SLM machines but creating that paradigm shift for the customer to be successful with their process. SLM Solutions consulted Orbex on how to make the technology best work for them and transferred that knowledge to ensure their successful implementation as they ramp up to production."

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